Software testing is the process of evaluating the functionality of a
software programme to determine whether the generated software
matched the defined requirements and identifying errors to provide a
Let's look at the software testing principles, definition, various
forms of testing, such as manual and automated testing, testing
methods, testing approaches, and different sorts of black-box
Principles of Software Testing:
Software testing is based on certain principles that are critical to
the project's success.
The Principles of Testing are as follows:
1. Testing shows the presence of defects
2. Exhaustive testing is impossible
3. Early testing
4. Defect clustering
5. Pesticide paradox
6. Testing is context-dependent
7. Absence of error - a fallacy
Let us dive right into the Software Testing Basics:
Definition of Software Testing
According to ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard – “A process of analysing
a software item to detect the differences between existing and
required conditions (i.e., defects) and to evaluate the features of
the software item.”
What if software testing isn't part of the software development
Our lifestyle is advancing every day as a result of constant
improvement and transformation in digitization. We've also modified
the way we work. For example, we use the internet to access our
bank, shop, and order food, among other things. We rely on software
and systems to get things done.
What happens if these frameworks prove to be faulty?
Even a minor defect can have a significant financial and reputational
impact on a company.
Software must be tested in the Software Development Process to offer
a high-quality product.
The following are some of the reasons why testing has become such a
fundamental element of the field of information technology.
1. Economic Efficiency
2. Customer Satisfaction
3. Safety and Security
4. Product Excellence
1. Economic Efficiency
In fact, for any complicated system, design flaws can never be
eliminated. It's not because programmers are irresponsible, but
because a system's complexity is insurmountable. If design defects
go unnoticed, it will be more difficult to hunt them down and repair
them. Repairing it will become even more expensive. While correcting
one defect, we may unintentionally introduce another in another
module. If flaws are detected early in the development process, they
are significantly less expensive to rectify. As a result,
identifying problems early in the software development life cycle is
Cost-effectiveness is one of the advantages of testing. It is
preferable to begin testing early and include it into each phase of
the software development life cycle, and regular testing is required
to ensure that the application is produced according to the
2. Customer Satisfaction
Any company's ultimate goal is to give the maximum level of customer
satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is, without a doubt, crucial.
Software testing improves an application's user experience and
ensures client satisfaction. If a company's consumers are satisfied,
its revenue will rise.
3. Safety and Security
This is the most delicate and fragile element of the testing process.
Product security is aided by testing (penetration testing and
Unauthorised access to data is gained by hackers. Hackers steal
personal information from users and utilise it for their own gain.
Users will not like your product if it is not secure. Users are
continuously on the lookout for reliable items. Testing aids in the
elimination of product flaws.
4. Product Excellence
Software testing is an art that contributes to a company's market
reputation by delivering a high-quality product to the client in
accordance with the requirements specified in the requirement
specification papers. As a result of these causes, software testing
has become a very significant and vital part of the software
Types of Software Testing:
Manual testing is the process of manually evaluating software to
learn more about it and to determine what works and what doesn't.
This usually means checking all of the functionality mentioned in
the requirements specifications, but it also typically entails
testers putting the programme through its paces as if they were
their end users.
Manual test plans range from completely scripted test cases that
provide testers with precise instructions and expected outcomes to
high-level recommendations that lead exploratory testing sessions.
Automation testing is the technique of finding problems in software
using an automated method.
Using automation technologies, testers run test scripts and generate
test results automatically in this process. Selenium and Katalon
Studio are two well-known automation testing solutions for
Selenium is no longer a surprising name for web application testers.
It has significant features like cross-browser testing, but it's
challenging to understand for individuals who are new to automation
or programming. That's why Katalon Studio is the first choice for
most QA newbies and manual testers. Users can use the scripting mode
to develop programming skills while constructing test cases faster
using the simple UI, built-in keywords, and record & playback (Java
and Groovy supported). Here you can find the top 5 automation
testing tools in 2022.
Methods of Software Testing:
1. Static Testing
2. Dynamic Testing
In software testing, it's also known as verification.
Verification is a process of checking documents and files that are
done statically. It is the process of ensuring that we are correctly
building the product, that is, if we are verifying our requirements
and whether we are generating the product in compliance with them or
not. Inspections, reviews, and walkthroughs are all part of this
In software testing, it's also known as Validation.
Validation is a dynamic process of putting an actual product through
its paces. Validation is the process of determining whether we are
building the proper product, i.e., whether the product we have built
This involves a variety of activities. The software applications
being tested are Desktop applications, Web applications, Mobile
Approaches of Software Testing:
The following are the approaches used towards testing a software:
1. White Box Testing
2. Black Box Testing
3. Grey Box Testing
White Box Testing:
It's also known as Structural Testing, Glass Box, or Clear Box. White
Testing is based on the application's underlying code structure. In
white-box testing, test cases are created using an internal
of the system as well as programming skills. This type of testing is
frequently done on a per-unit basis.
Black Box Testing:
It Behavioural/Specification-Based/Input-Output Testing is another
for it. Black Box Testing is a type of software testing in which
assess the functionality of the software under test without
the internal code structure.
Types of Black Box Testing:
1. Functionality Testing
2. Non-functionality Testing
To put it simply, the system does functional testing to ensure that each
application function operates as defined in the requirements
All features are tested by supplying appropriate input to see if the
actual result matches the desired output. It falls under the
black-box testing, which means the testers won't have to worry about
application's source code.
Non-functionality testing is determining how well a system performs.
covers a wide range of software aspects, including performance, load,
stress, scalability, security, compatibility, and so on. The main
is to improve the user experience by increasing the speed with which
system responds to requests.
Grey Box Testing:
Grey Box Testing is a hybrid of White Box and Black Box testing
methods. This sort of testing necessitates access to design papers
by the tester. This aids in the creation of better test cases during
Levels of Software Testing:
1. Unit Testing
2. Integration Testing
3. System Testing
4. Acceptance Testing
Unit testing is used to see if the source code's constituent modules
are working properly. i.e. the developer testing each and every unit
of the application individually in the developer's environment. It's
also known as Component Testing or Module Testing.
Integration testing is the process of determining whether or not two
or more units or modules are connected or transfer data. It's also
known as I&T or string testing. It is classified into three types:
top-down, bottom-up, and sandwich approaches (Combination of
Top-Down and Bottom-Up).
System Testing (End-to-End Testing):
It's a Black Box technique to testing. End-to-end scenario testing is
another term for testing a fully integrated application. To
guarantee that the programme is compatible with all of the target
systems. Check for intended outputs by closely inspecting each
programme input. The programme is put to the test to see how the
users react to it.
To get consumer approval so that software may be supplied and
payments can be made. Acceptance testing is divided into three
categories: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma.
Software Testing Services
Here is the comprehensive list of the top
Software Testing Companies in India. In this list, you can find
Software QA Service Provider Companies from India that offer
innovative and cost-efficient quality assurance and software testing
To Sum It Up
The world of Software
Testing is vast. The possibilities are endless and no one
kind of testing technique, type or approach can be named superior
than the other. In fact, most of them compliment each other. We hope
that you’ve learned everything important there is to know about
software testing principles and software testing basics.